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Wild haggis (Haggis Scottii)      See also  Recipes using haggis and Where to buy haggis (UK)  (Overseas)

Physiology and Habitat

The Wild Haggis is a small, rough-haired quadruped creature, native to the Scottish Highlands.  A notable feature is that the legs on one side of the animal's body are both significantly longer than those on the other, this being a local long-term evolutionary adaptation to living on the steep sides of Scottish mountains.

Haggis*  thus adapted can only travel with any ease or speed in one direction - clock-wise (Haggis Scottii dexterous), or anti-clockwise (Haggis Scotti sinistrous), depending on whether the legs are longer on the left or the right side of the animal. If the shorter legs do not remain on the up-slope side of the hapless beastie it is in severe danger of falling over sideways and rolling to the bottom of the hillside.




The Great Haggis - The Capture of The Great Haggis, 1743

The Capture of The Great Haggis, 1743

The Haggis has for many hundreds of years, formed an important part of the history and diet of the Scottish People. However, very little is known of this amazing creature, which still roams freely in some parts today.

In earlier times, however, there were two species of Haggis. In addition to the Lesser Haggis of today there was a more popular and therefore less numerous Great Haggis. In the rugged
Scottish Highlands where it was able to exist and multiply reasonably successfully, the great Haggis enjoyed a measure of protection. Not only did the hunter find the terrain difficult but the creature's legs had developed to be shorter on one side of its body than on the other, and so were ideal for swiftly running around the side of steep mountains. This gave it considerable advantage in the chase, but gradually man took his toll of the haggis herds, with a most lethal weapon: his intelligence. The hunter would chase the haggis and wait until it came back around the mountain side. Having its legs so developed the poor beast could not turn around to escape without falling to its doom.

However, for many years, a solitary specimen of Great Haggis roamed the Central Highlands, successfully evading capture. By some freak of nature its legs had developed short in the front and long at the back so it could run fast to the top of the mountains. It could also run down at speed, but, of course, backwards.

In the Autumn of 1743, a hunting party of local clansmen were returning to their home village in Central Fife, when they sighted the huge haggis skewered on a very pointed fir tree that grew close to the mountain side. it was obvious from the look on its face, that it had met its (and the tree's) end, suddenly, whilst rushing backwards down the steep slope.

Its length was almost 1.2 m with a 1.8 m girth. It was truly the Great Haggis.

The scene of the triumphant homecoming, at a place close to what is now called Kirkcaldy, was recorded for history by Buik Heggie, one of the few artists of the time. William Keith has reproduced this engraving to commemorate the event.

Andrew B. Heggie, a descendant of the artist and native of Fife, now resides in Glenrothes.


Haggis History

The Hebridean Haggis is thought to be the original native species from which all other haggis are descended. This breed of  haggis was much smaller and more hardy than the mainland varieties and formed part of the staple diet of the ancient Scots.

It is believed that the present wild haggis population is descended from the feral haggis, which in turn were the descendants of the domesticated Hebridean haggis, abandoned when the native Scots crofters and their families were forced to leave the land at the time of the Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadach nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael), the forced displacements of the population of the Scottish Highlands during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Like the crofters themselves, the haggis faced extinction through competition with the large numbers of sheep which were introduced as part of a process of agricultural change, considered to be necessary 'improvements' by the land owners. Owing to their inability to move on other terrain, plus their need for a constant supply of local heather and peaty burns - haggis have an acute sensitivity to water pH balance -  none of the live pet haggis which the crofters attempted to take with them survived for more than a few days away from their native mountain sides.

A large number of wild haggis still roam the moors and machair of the Western Isles and, despite the Isles of Lewis and Harris having a strict Sabbatarian tradition, the Hebridean Haggis Hunt is one of the few events that takes place on a Sunday across all of the islands - including Lewis and Harris.

The Lewis Haggis is different from the Haggis on the mainland: unlike its mainland relative all its legs are of the same length. Capturing of wild haggis on Lewis is a traditional community event. At dusk, the young men of the villages go out on to the moors to form a wide semi-circle while the elders cover peat creels with heather and turf, just leaving the opening visible. The young men, acting as 'beaters', drive the haggis towards the traps.

On perceiving the elders, the haggis panic, seek shelter and mistaking the creels for burrows the haggis are caught, quickly dispatched and passed to the women-folk for skinning. The haggis are then soaked in brine for a couple of days to become tender and ready to cook. (According to an authoritative source, a resident of Lewis,  traditionally the haggis skin would be used as a sporran, but with the decline in kilt wearing over the years the skins are now often discarded.)

Haggis sub-species

Regional, and indeed very specifically local sub-species of haggis exist, identifiable to the true haggis expert because the actual difference in the length of the legs is dependent on the steepness of the slopes within their  habitat. Haggis are thus adapted to the angle of slope in a geographically very small area,  resulting in the haggis being 'clannish', fiercely territorial and pure-bred. It is virtually impossible for courtship and mating to occur between Haggis Scotti dexterous and Haggis Scotti sinistrous individuals in the wild, since in order for the male of one variety to mate with a female of the other, he must turn to face in the same direction as his intended mate, causing him to lose his balance before he can mount her.

Haggis Hunting

During the Haggis Season Ghillies who are familiar with the local terrain take advantage of the delicate issues facing the male haggis on finding a mate by releasing Haggis Scottii dexterous females into known Haggis Scotii sinistrous territory, (or vice versa) thus attracting the attention of local males whose brief, hazardous and ultimately pathetic pursuit of the objects of their amorous desire is inevitably fatal, as they are an easy target for the Haggis Hunters.

Haggis Poaching

Haggis poaching is sometimes accomplished with the use of a mirror. Two haggis poachers meet at a suitable location and one hides in the heather with the mirror; the other chases the haggis around the hill. When the terror-stricken fleeing haggis approaches the hidden hunter he, or she, jumps out and confronts the haggis with the mirror. The animal sees  in the mirror what appears to be another animal charging at it in wide-eyed panic so it turns round to hasten away also. Again the demise of the haggis is inevitable, since it topples over, rolls down the slope and is easily seized.

Rare Breed Haggis

There are no wild haggis outside Scotland and the haggis in its native land is a rather shy and retiring rare-breed. The Golden Haggis is much more common in the Western Isles (especially on the machair) than on the mainland and commands a premium price. All wild haggis is therefore considered to be a great delicacy, to be prepared and presented with care and ceremony and eaten on special occasions.

(* Note that the plural of haggis is haggis)


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